今日精读英文外刊第12 期选自2018 年11 月 30日《金融时报》,前面11期内容在微信公号后台「精读」菜单中可查询阅读,后台回复关键词「第12天G20」可查看完整版英文原文,建议先自行阅读,再看赏析,比较学习与阅读。

精读英文外刊第12 天

G20: Trump’s efforts to unblock China trade impasse hinge on A summit

“特习会”前瞻:特朗普的关键时刻

作者:詹姆斯•波利提

译者:何黎

2018年11月30日,20国集团领导人在阿根廷首都布宜诺斯艾利斯(Buenos Aires)召开为期两天的20国集团峰会。峰会将主要对世界经济、贸易投资、数字经济、基础建设和气候变化等全球议题进行商讨。本次峰会召开之时正值ZM紧张时期,“双方的会面能否促进双方关系改善?”是本次峰会的主要焦点之一。

本期《金融时报》从特朗普以及美国国内外局势变化的角度,对G20峰会“特习会”能否达成协定进行了分析。

P1 Donald Trump on Thursday summed up his feelings about a possible deal on trade with China’s A when they meet over dinner at this weekend’s G20 summit in Buenos Aires. "I think we are very close to doing something with China,“ the US president told reporters before leaving the White House for Argentina. “But I don't know that I want to do it,” he said.

P2 There have been plenty of pivotal moments in Mr Trump’s presidency, from his Eiffel Tower meal with Emmanuel Macron, to his summit with Russia’s Vladimir Putin in Helsinki to the historic tête-à-tête in Singapore with Kim Jong Un, the North Korean dictator. Yet the meeting with A on Saturday evening could eclipse them all, and Mr Trump can ill-afford any perception of failure.

P3 The US leader has made the trade war with China a defining feature of his presidency by vowing to rebalance the economic relationship between the countries in a way that had escaped previous US administrations — laying the groundwork for a revival of American industry.

P4 But as he prepares for his showdown with Mr A, Mr Trump is on the defensive: his Republican party suffered big losses in the House of Representatives during the midterm elections — a warning sign for his 2020 re-election bid, his ex-lawyer just pleaded guilty to lying in the Russia collusion probe led by special prosecutor Robert Mueller, and the costs of the protectionist policies he has employed to pressure Mr A are beginning to mount.

赏析部分

G20: Trump’s efforts to unblock China trade impasse hinge on A summit

“特习会”前瞻:特朗普的关键时刻

词汇短语

impasse. a situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement is possible僵局; a street with only one way in or out死路,死胡同.

[syn.]dead end, deadlock, stalemate, standstill

e.g.:Meanwhile, it’s quite possible that the current trade impasse with China will continue or even escalate. (Fox News, Nov 28, 2018)

同时,当前与中国的贸易僵局很有可能继续甚至升级。

hinge on phr.-v be contingent on取决于…;以…为转移

[syn.] depend on, depend upon, devolve on, hinge upon, ride, turn on

e.g.:The results of the election, though, may well hinge on turnout in the first two groups.(The New Yorker, Nov 2, 2018)

不过,选举结果很可能取决于前两组选民的投票率。

P1 Donald Trump on Thursday summed up his feelings about a possible deal on trade with China’s A when they meet over dinner at this weekend’s G20 summit in Buenos Aires. "I think we are very close to doing something with China,“ the US president told reporters before leaving the White House for Argentina. “But I don't know that I want to do it,” he said.

参考译文:美国总统唐纳德•特朗普(Donald Trump)和A将在本周末于布宜诺斯艾利斯举行的20国集团(G20)峰会上共进晚餐,特朗普周四对此次会晤可能就美中贸易达成的协议表达了他的矛盾心情。“我认为我们非常接近与中国做点什么,”在离开白宫前往阿根廷之前,特朗普对记者说,“但我不确定我想这么做。”

背景知识:G20 Summit

是一个国际经济合作论坛,于1999年12月16日在德国柏林成立,属于布雷顿森林体系框架内非正式对话的一种机制,由原八国集团以及其余十二个重要经济体组成。峰会旨在推动已工业化的发达国家和新兴市场国家之间就实质性问题进行开放及有建设性的讨论和研究,以寻求合作并促进国际金融稳定和经济的持续增长。第十三次峰会于2018年11月30日至12月1日在阿根廷布宜诺斯艾利斯举行。

词汇短语

sum up除了表示“give a summary of总结;概述”之外,韦氏词典还给出了一个含义为“to present or show succinctly简要表达”

Golf Digest也有此种用法:But the sweetest prize he summed up in justice to words: bragging and rights.但对于这一最体贴的奖项,他只用了“吹牛和权利”来表达自己想法。

close作adj.时,除了表示“(空间、时间上的)接近”和“亲近、密切”之外,还有“almost, likely几乎,可能”的含义。常用短语be close to doing,表示“几乎处于某种状态;可能快要做…(almost in a particular state; likely to do sth. soon)”。注意,此处的to为介词。

e.g.:I was very close to moving to the next level of athletic ability, a level at which I would be better than most kids my age and ready to play against older kids.(Bad Boy)

我的运动能力几乎已经提升了一个水平,我的表现将远远超过大多数同龄人了,而且我已经准备好去和比我大的孩子比赛。

P2 There have been plenty of pivotal moments in Mr Trump’s presidency, from his Eiffel Tower meal with Emmanuel Macron,to his summit with Russia’s Vladimir Putin in Helsinkito thehistoric tête-à-tête in Singapore with Kim Jong Un, the North Korean dictator. Yet the meeting with Mr A on Saturday evening could eclipse them all, and Mr Trump can ill-afford any perception of failure.

参考译文:在特朗普的总统任期内有过很多关键时刻,从他与法国总统埃马纽埃尔•马克龙(Emmanuel Macron)在埃菲尔铁塔共进晚餐,到他与俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔•普京(Vladimir Putin)在赫尔辛基举行峰会,再到他与朝鲜独裁者金正恩(Kim Jong Un)在新加坡举行历史性的单独会面。然而,本周六晚上他与A的会晤可能会让所有这些会晤都相形见绌,且特朗普可能承受不起任何失败的感觉。

词汇短语

tête-à-tête作n.时指“a private conversation between two people (i.e. pillow talk)促膝长谈”,作adj.指“involving two persons; intimately private(i.e. head-to-head)”;作adv.意为“(face-to-face)with the intrusion of a third person; in intimate privacy”。

该词为法语词,但在政治外刊以及生活类刊物中都是非常常见的,例如在Washington Post中,“Trump pledged to ask Putin in their tête-à-tête”以及Time中“The tête-à-tête between the American and ANP leaders”。

e.g.: France fears that Trump, who was scheduled to arrive Thursday night, will block or eclipse any progress at the G-20.(Fox NewsNov 29, 2018)

法国担心,预计周四晚抵达的特朗普会阻碍或掩盖20国集团峰会的进展。(福克斯新闻,2018年11月29日)

段落分析

特朗普政府并不急于和中国达成协议,还在期待中国做出更多让步,因此G20中美首脑会晤要积极地谈,但寄希望“毕其功于一役”可能并不现实。特朗普政府认为,中方越是急于达成协议,越说明其内部压力大,所以美国应持续施压,获得中方更多让步。文章1~2段所述的便是特朗普当前的矛盾心理,同时也强调了此次会晤的重要与不同。

P3 The US leader has made the trade war with China a defining feature of his presidency by vowing to rebalance the economic relationship between the countries in a way that had escaped previous US administrations —laying the groundwork for a revival of American industry.

参考译文:特朗普已使对华贸易战成为他总统任期中的一个标志性特征,他誓言以一种前几届美国政府理解不了的方式,重新平衡两国经济关系——为美国工业复兴奠定基础。

词汇短语:

lay the groundwork for为..打基础;为…做准备

ground为“土地、地面”,引申含义为“基础”,因此groundwork为合成词,意为“基础(工作);准备工作preliminary preparation as a basis or foundation)”,其同义词皆是我们常用的“basis, base, cornerstone, foundation以及fundament”,此外在表示“准备工作”时,可与preparation进行替换使用。

e.g.: Many argue that this deep-rooted corruption laid the groundwork forthe collapse of Venezuela today.(New York Times Nov 23, 2018)许多人认为,这种根深蒂固的腐败为委内瑞拉如今的“坍塌”买下了种子。(《纽约时报》2018年11月23日)

下文中也出现了ground的一个常用搭配:on…grounds“以..为理由或根据”这一含义取于ground一名词含义“a rational motive for a belief or action充分的理由;根据…”,相当于reason。

举个例子:

In March, Trump made good on his long-standing threats to throw his weight around, using a 1962 act to level tariffs on foreign steel and aluminum on national security grounds.(Washington PostNov 29, 2018)

今年3月,特朗普兑现了自己的承诺。他利用1962年的一项法案并以国家安全为由,对外国钢铁和铝征收关税。(华盛顿邮报2018年11月29日)

句子分析

第三段整体为一个句子,其中包括一个主句及一个从句。不难发现,句中成分多用介词连接。介词一直被认为是逻辑衔接中的“关节”,因为它除了表示方位,还能够体现事物之间抽象的逻辑关系。例如,“on the river”表示的是“(紧贴水面)河面上”,而“above the river”表示的“河面上”则是不贴水面的,具有空间概念。

此外,英语中有很多介词本身就存在动态意义,因此地道的英语表达往往会根据要表达的逻辑,选择合适的介词。不仅使得表达简洁,行文也更加紧凑,内容生动形象。

P4 But as he prepares for his showdown with Mr A, Mr Trump is on the defensive: his Republican party suffered big losses in the House of Representatives during the midterm elections — a warning sign for his 2020 re-election bid, his ex-lawyer just pleaded guilty to lying in the Russia collusion probe led by special prosecutor Robert Mueller, and the costs of the protectionist policie she has employed to pressure Mr A are beginning to mount.

参考译文:但在准备与A摊牌之际,特朗普本身却处于守势:在中期选举中,他所在的共和党在众议院遭受重大损失,这对他在2020年争取连任是一个警示信号;他原来的律师刚刚承认,在特别检察官罗伯特•穆勒(Robert Mueller)所作的指控中,他在一宗俄罗斯房地产交易的事情上向国会撒了谎;他为向X施压而采取的保护主义政策面临越来越大的成本。

词汇短语:

showdown看到这个词会有一种把手里握紧的牌全部放下给别人看的画面出现。的确,showdown有“摊牌”的意思。不过,showdown并不用于娱乐的场景之中,它所表示的“摊牌”是“决出胜负的较量;最后的决战(an argument, a fight, or a test that will settle a disagreement that has lasted for a long time)”;

举个例子:

By improving the terms of other trade relationships, the president is strengthening his leverage for the showdown with China.(Fox News Nov 29, 2018)

翻译分析

本句中的re-election原意为“再选;改选”考虑到特朗普当前在任,因此处理为“连任”。因此,在翻译过程中除了要考虑到文章背景,还要考虑到描述对象的身份。

背景知识

中期选举(midterm elections)

根据美国宪法,美国总统选举每四年举行一次,国会选举每两年举行一次。其中一次国会选举与四年一度的总统选举同时举行,而另一次则在总统任期之间举行。在总统任期之间举行的国会选举,就是“中期选举”。

以上为本期内容,感谢阅读。

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